## Tuesday, May 19, 2020

### 2nd Grade Math Course of Study

The following list provides you with the basic concepts that should be attained by the end of the school year. Mastery of the concepts at the previous grade is assumed. Numbers Read print numbers to 20 and locate, compare, order, represent, estimate, identify numbers to 1000 and mentally add and subtract numbers to 20Understand place value to be able to trade 10 ones for a ten, etc.Count by 1s, 2s, 5s, 10s beyond 100.Locate numbers when requested to 1000Understand the reverse properties of whole numbers 57 is the same as 75Add and subtract two-digit numbers (no carrying/regrouping)Introduction to division using sharing as examplesCount by skipping numbers when requestedAdd and subtract coins up to \$1.00Compute word problems with addition and subtraction, (We have 20 children in swimming class, 8 are boys, how many are girls?) Measurement Use and understand more than, less than, the same as, heavier than, lighter than, taller than etc.Measure with a variety of cups, rulers and measuring spoonsTime - hours, minutes and secondsUse the terms inches, feet, yards, centimeters, meters etc.Know the months of the year and tell time to the quarter hourUse a thermometer and count money to a dollar including being able to create different sets that equal a dollarCompare a variety of measurement tools Geometry Describe, identify, create and sort and build with shapes (squares, triangles, circles, rectangles etc.)Identify a variety of geometric shapes in everyday structuresCompare and sort 2- and 3-dimensional shapes (3-D terms include sphere, prism cones etc.)Extend and make patterns with shapesDetermine lines of symmetry, flips, slides, turns, and transformations of shapesDescribe locations on a grid - up four and over two etc. Algebra/Patterning Identify, describe, reorganize and extend patterns with more than one attributeGive specific rules about patterns for numbers, shapes, pictures, and objectsIdentify and describe patterns in the world around us (wallpaper, paint etc) Probability Use graphs to record number of pets, hair color temperature with 1 and 2 attributesDesign or construct bar graphs and include pertinent informationInterpret a variety of picture and bar graphs and give explanationsInvestigate what happens when coins are flipped and die are rolled All Grades Pre-K Kdg. Gr. 1 Gr. 2 Gr. 3 Gr. 4 Gr. 5 Gr. 6 Gr. 7 Gr. 8 Gr. 9 Gr. 10 Gr.11 Gr. 12

## Wednesday, April 22, 2020

### The Rise Of Communism In Russia Essays (2269 words) - Old Bolsheviks

The Rise of Communism in Russia Unless we accept the claim that Lenin's coup that gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today's Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980s (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class differences would disappear and humankind would live in harmony. Marx and Engels claimed to have discovered a scientific approach to socialism based on the laws of history. They declared that the course of history was determined by the clash of opposing forces rooted in the economic system and the ownership of property. Just as the feudal system had given way to capitalism, so in time capitalism would give way to socialism. The class struggle of the future would be between the bourgeoisie, who were the capitalist employers, and the proletariat, who were the workers. The struggle would end, according to Marx, in the socialist revolution and the attainment of full communism (Groilers Encyclopedia). Socialism, of which Marxism-Leninism is a takeoff, originated in the West. Designed in France and Germany, it was brought into Russia in the middle of the nineteenth century and promptly attracted support among the country's educated, public- minded elite, who at that time were called intelligentsia (Pipes, 21). After Revolution broke out over Europe in 1848 the modern working class appeared on the scene as a major historical force. However, Russia remained out of the changes that Europe was experiencing. As a socialist movement and inclination, the Russian Social-Democratic Party continued the traditions of all the Russian Revolutions of the past, with the goal of conquering political freedom (Daniels 7). As early as 1894, when he was twenty-four, Lenin had become a revolutionary agitator and a convinced Marxist. He exhibited his new faith and his polemical talents in a diatribe of that year against the peasant-oriented socialism of the Populists led by N.K. Mikhiaiovsky (Wren, 3). While Marxism had been winning adherents among the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia for more than a decade previously, a claimed Marxist party was bit organized until 1898. In that year a congress of nine men met at Minsk to proclaim the establishment of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party. The Manifesto issued in the name of the congress after the police broke it up was drawn up by the economist Peter Struve, a member of the moderate Legal Marxist group who soon afterward left the Marxist movement altogether. The manifesto is indicative of the way Marxism was applied to Russian conditions, and of the special role for the proletariat (Pipes, 11). The first true congress of the Russian Social Democratic workers Party was the Second. It convened in Brussels in the summer of 1903, but was forced by the interference of the Belgian authorities to move to London, where the proceedings were concluded. The Second Congress was the occasion for bitter wrangling among the representatives of various Russian Marxist Factions, and ended in a deep split that was mainly caused by Lenin -- his personality, his drive for power in the movement, and his hard philosophy of the disciplined party organization. At the close of the congress Lenin commanded a temporary majority for his faction and seized upon the label 0Bolshevik (Russian for Majority), while his opponents who inclined to the soft or more democratic position became known as the Mensheviks or minority (Daniels, 19). Though born only in 1879, Trotsky had gained a leading place among the Russian Social-Democrats by the time of the Second party Congress in 1903. He represented ultra-radical sentiment that could not reconcile itself to Lenin's stress on the party organization. Trotsky stayed with the Menshevik faction until he joined Lenin in 1917. From that point on, he accommodated himself in large measure to Lenin's philosophy of party dictatorship, but his reservations came to the surface again in the years after his fall from power (Stoessinger, 13). In the months after the Second Congress of the Social Democratic Party Lenin lost his majority and began organizing a rebellious group of Bolsheviks. This was to be in opposition of the new majority of the congress, the Menshiviks, led by Trotsky. Twenty-two Bolsheviks, including Lenin, met in Geneva in August of 1904 to promote the idea of the highly disciplined party and to urge the reorganization of the whole Social- Democratic movement on Leninist lines (Stoessinger, 33). The differences between Lenin and the Bogdanov group of revolutionary romantics